Archivi categoria: Cognition and Behavior

Misidentification syndromes at the interface of neurology and psychiatry

As neurologists, sometimes we deal with special « delusions ». Misidentification syndromes are rare neurologic conditions in which the patient attributes a wrong identity (a sort of hypo-identification) to people (Capgras syndrome or doubles’ illusion), to places (reduplicative amnesia), or believes that … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Lewy Body Disease, Parkinson Disease, Psychiatry | Lascia un commento

The Balint syndrome (a chaotic visual world)

The Balint syndrome is a rare neurological condition consisting of a triad of visuomotor deficits : simultanagnosia, oculomotor apraxia and optic apraxia. Simultanagnosia is the inability to perceive objects when they are simultaneously presented (seeing the tree but not the … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Apraxia, Cerebrovascular diseases, Cognition and Behavior, Neurorehabilitation, Stroke, visual disorders | Lascia un commento

Minor Hemisphere Major Syndromes

Dr Carota recently published an extensive article entitled “Minor hemisphere major syndromes” on a prestigious international journal of neurology. You can take a look to understand how the functional differences of the two brain hemispheres result in different syndromes in … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Stroke | Lascia un commento

MINI-COG: to do absolutely

The MINI-COG (Borson and al. 2000) is an excellent screening test for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. I always suggest to general doctors or to relatives to perform the test to the person with memory difficulties. The test requires only three … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Alzheimer, Cognition and Behavior, Memory | 1 commento

Dysprosody

The prosody is a communicative linguistic function, which results from the intonation, cadence, accent, and physical duration of the words. The prosody enhances the comprehension or the composed words, the basic emotions (rage, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust, pleasure), the subtle … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | Lascia un commento

A case of apraxic agraphia?

Apraxic agraphia is a very rare condition. The examiner should think about it when the patient shows normal linguistic capabilities (conversation is normal or almost normal) together with severely impaired writing. Apraxic agraphia is a peripheral writing disorder. Patients with … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | Lascia un commento

Stimulate your cortex and eat less

Eating disorders should raise up from dysfunction of neural processing in brain areas that are involved in emotional control, appetite regulation and body schema representations. In this context, eating disorders are located in the interface between the mind, body and … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | 2 commenti

Neurologic mysteries: Mild Encephalopathy with Reversible Splenium lesion (MERS)

MERS is not a so rare clinical entity even if epidemiological data are scanty; the clinical presentation is variable such as the etiologies of this syndrome. However, although the splenium lesion is usually quite big, these patients do not show … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Neurologic mysteries | Lascia un commento

Micrographia

Micrographia is a frequent symptom of Parkinson’s disease, often one of the first. Its association with the disease is straightforward: 75-90% of patients with Parkinson show micrographia, the presence of micrographia allows the diagnosis of PD in almost all cases. … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Parkinson Disease | Lascia un commento

Reduplicative Paramnesia

This syndrome is quite rare and there are no specific epidemiological data. It can be observed in both psychiatric and neurologic settings. In my personal neurologic career, I probably met thirty patients with this condition, most of them after frontal … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Stroke | 5 commenti

Recovery after stroke

Early prediction of functional outcome is important in stroke management to introduce rehabilitation programs with realistic objectives. These objectives should be periodically checked and continuously readapted with the salient clinical aspects of the patient recovery. Outcome is generally better for … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Neurorehabilitation, Stroke | Lascia un commento

The frontal lobe: the master and commander

The frontal lobe is the main site of cognitive, emotional and behavioral processing. The prefrontal cortex, because of heavy bidirectional connections with all the other associative areas of the brain has long been assumed to have functions of control over … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | Lascia un commento

FALSE MEMORIES

The Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995) is a procedure to study false memories. In this paradigm, individuals are induced to falsely recall/recognize a nonstudied word (e.g. sleep), which is defined as the “critical lure”, through the previous study … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Memory | Lascia un commento

Pusher syndrome

Patients with the pusher syndrome are characterized to push toward the weak side of the body, generally the left side (on a coronal plane) after a right hemisphere lesion. This behavior puts them at high risk of falling. These patients … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cerebrovascular diseases, Cognition and Behavior, Stroke | 1 commento

Room-tilt illusion

This illusion is quite rare and I can remember on my fingers the patients with it whom I met, generally in emergency settings. For the majority of them the illusion was transitory lasting generally minutes and was accompanied by other … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cerebrovascular diseases, Cognition and Behavior, Neuro-ORL | 2 commenti

Parkinson disease and anxiety

I think that anxiety is one of the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD) at the early stages of the disease. An anxiety profile that is specific to PD has not been defined. DSM diagnostic criteria of anxiety … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Parkinson Disease, Psychiatry | Lascia un commento

Had Vincent van Gogh a bipolar disorder?

Vincent Van Gogh (1853–1890) imparted in his art a deep essence of life, and in such a unique way, that many would say it is possible to experience it vicariously by looking at his paintings even once. In 10 years, … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | 1 commento

Faces with no identity (prosopagnosia)

Acquired prosopagnosia (or face blindness) is the name of that rare syndrome (generally presenting, but not only, after stroke) affecting individuals who cannot recognize no more familiar faces or learn to recognize new faces. For example, these patients cannot differentiate … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Stroke | Lascia un commento

Philosophical zombies exist

Seeing and being aware of seeing require both intact visual perception and adequate insight of that perception itself. Patients with cerebral or acquired achromatopsia (color blindness) after damage of the color area (V4 and related visual areas on the ventral … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | Lascia un commento

Propositional versus Non-Propositional speech

Propositional speech is volitional and requires conscious mental effort in manipulating linguistic segments that have to be assembled to express meaningful ideas.  Thus, propositional speech relies on language-related neural systems of controlled and intentional information processes. Non-propositional speech (i.e. recites … Continua a leggere

Pubblicato in Aphasia, Cognition and Behavior | 3 commenti