Category Archives: Cognition and Behavior

Dysprosody

The prosody is a communicative linguistic function, which results from the intonation, cadence, accent, and physical duration of the words. The prosody enhances the comprehension or the composed words, the basic emotions (rage, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust, pleasure), the subtle … Continue reading

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A case of apraxic agraphia?

Apraxic agraphia is a very rare condition. The examiner should think about it when the patient shows normal linguistic capabilities (conversation is normal or almost normal) together with severely impaired writing. Apraxic agraphia is a peripheral writing disorder. Patients with … Continue reading

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Stimulate your cortex and eat less

Eating disorders should raise up from dysfunction of neural processing in brain areas that are involved in emotional control, appetite regulation and body schema representations. In this context, eating disorders are located in the interface between the mind, body and … Continue reading

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Neurologic mysteries: Mild Encephalopathy with Reversible Splenium lesion (MERS)

MERS is not a so rare clinical entity even if epidemiological data are scanty; the clinical presentation is variable such as the etiologies of this syndrome. However, although the splenium lesion is usually quite big, these patients do not show … Continue reading

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Micrographia

Micrographia is a frequent symptom of Parkinson’s disease, often one of the first. Its association with the disease is straightforward: 75-90% of patients with Parkinson show micrographia, the presence of micrographia allows the diagnosis of PD in almost all cases. … Continue reading

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Reduplicative Paramnesia

This syndrome is quite rare and there are no specific epidemiological data. It can be observed in both psychiatric and neurologic settings. In my personal neurologic career, I probably met thirty patients with this condition, most of them after frontal … Continue reading

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Recovery after stroke

Early prediction of functional outcome is important in stroke management to introduce rehabilitation programs with realistic objectives. These objectives should be periodically checked and continuously readapted with the salient clinical aspects of the patient recovery. Outcome is generally better for … Continue reading

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The frontal lobe: the master and commander

The frontal lobe is the main site of cognitive, emotional and behavioral processing. The prefrontal cortex, because of heavy bidirectional connections with all the other associative areas of the brain has long been assumed to have functions of control over … Continue reading

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FALSE MEMORIES

The Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995) is a procedure to study false memories. In this paradigm, individuals are induced to falsely recall/recognize a nonstudied word (e.g. sleep), which is defined as the “critical lure”, through the previous study … Continue reading

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Pusher syndrome

Patients with the pusher syndrome are characterized to push toward the weak side of the body, generally the left side (on a coronal plane) after a right hemisphere lesion. This behavior puts them at high risk of falling. These patients … Continue reading

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Room-tilt illusion

This illusion is quite rare and I can remember on my fingers the patients with it whom I met, generally in emergency settings. For the majority of them the illusion was transitory lasting generally minutes and was accompanied by other … Continue reading

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Parkinson disease and anxiety

I think that anxiety is one of the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD) at the early stages of the disease. An anxiety profile that is specific to PD has not been defined. DSM diagnostic criteria of anxiety … Continue reading

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Had Vincent van Gogh a bipolar disorder?

Vincent Van Gogh (1853–1890) imparted in his art a deep essence of life, and in such a unique way, that many would say it is possible to experience it vicariously by looking at his paintings even once. In 10 years, … Continue reading

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Faces with no identity (prosopagnosia)

Acquired prosopagnosia (or face blindness) is the name of that rare syndrome (generally presenting, but not only, after stroke) affecting individuals who cannot recognize no more familiar faces or learn to recognize new faces. For example, these patients cannot differentiate … Continue reading

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Philosophical zombies exist

Seeing and being aware of seeing require both intact visual perception and adequate insight of that perception itself. Patients with cerebral or acquired achromatopsia (color blindness) after damage of the color area (V4 and related visual areas on the ventral … Continue reading

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Propositional versus Non-Propositional speech

Propositional speech is volitional and requires conscious mental effort in manipulating linguistic segments that have to be assembled to express meaningful ideas.  Thus, propositional speech relies on language-related neural systems of controlled and intentional information processes. Non-propositional speech (i.e. recites … Continue reading

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Art is a window to the brain.

Art is a window to the mind. As painting is a product of the artist’s brain, stroke usually entails significant changes of the expression of figurative artists. Thus, these artistic changes, which are generally stereotyped, should reflect specific neural dysfunction. … Continue reading

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The brain is a matter of time

What is human life without time perception? Is there a region of the brain that is specifically working for time perception? Now, there is no evidence of that. Actually, many regions of the brain work conjointly to provide time perception. … Continue reading

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Brain, sexual desire and love

Love and sexual desire are two of the most intense human emotional experiences. These two emotional experiences are strictly related and highly rewarding. Love is a state of intense interest and affection for another person while the sexual desire corresponds … Continue reading

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Close to the model (the closing-in phenomenon in Alzheimer disease).

The closing-in phenomenon occurs when a drawing is reproduced close, next or partially superimposed on the original model, despite a clear consign to do not do so. This behavior has been often reported in patients with Alzheimer disease. However, patients … Continue reading

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