The challenges of Parkinson’s disease

The first challenge for the healthcare professionals is to preserve as long as possible the autonomy of the patients in the daily life.
The disability of  Parkinson’s disease has a high social impact and an important economic cost.
To preserve the patients’ autonomy, the neurologist has to identify and treat not only the « motor » but also the « non motor » symptoms (mood disorders, sleep, low blood pressure, pain, constipation and so on).
Another challenge is defining the mechanisms which cause the onset of the disease and its progress in time. The research focuses on the biomarkers, which can be identified 10 or 20 years before the onset of the first symptoms. Probably, the cure will be possible only in the prodromal phase of the disease. In the advanced phases the intent would be stabilizing the disease or avoiding its progression.
On a clinical perspective, we have to focus on the early « non motor » symptoms of the disease (taste and olfaction reduction, depression and anxiety, the sleep REM phase behavioral disorder, cognitive trouble, constipation and so on.). By better defining these early symptoms we can individuate the patients at risk to develop the disease and obtain an early diagnosis by means of biomarkers or functional imaging.
The hereditary cases of Parkinson’s disease are not so rare (10%) and, for them, the first symptoms appear before the age of 40 or 50. Now, we know the mutations of several genes which are determinant for these cases. The study of these genes can suggest some mechanisms of the sporadic disease.
Another challenge is the treatment of those  symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (dysarthria, gait and equilibrium dysfonction), which are less improved by pharmacological treatments. We need further treatments for the motor fluctuations of the advanced phase of the disease.

Pubblicato in Movement disorders, Parkinson Disease | Lascia un commento

Small revolution against migraine.

In Switzerland, there is a million of people suffering from migraine.
Now, in our center in Gland (, we can prescribe the Erenumab, a new preventive drug for the episodic (less than 15 days of crises a month) or chronic (more than 15 days of crisis a month during more than 3 months) migraine.
Erenumab is a monoclonal antibody which blocks the protein associated with the calcitonin gene (CGRP-R) and which acts exclusively on the vascular meningeal sites where the migraine pain starts. Thus, this is, for the first time, a biological action which is very specific for migraine and that is different from the one of other painkillers or preventive drugs.
The treatment is supplied in the form of a pen injection. The injection is subcutaneous and should be done once a month. Several clinical trials demonstrated that Erenumab reduced (for about 3000 migrainous patients), at least of a half the monthly number of days of migraines to 40 to 50 % of the patients. According to these studies 25% of the patients with migraine could become free of crises.
Actually, the drug has almost no side effects. Too good to be true? The dark side of the moon is the high price of the drug (about 600 CHF/month). The Swiss health insurances refund the 90% of the cost of the drug, but it is necessary asking for the authorization for each patient.

Pubblicato in Headache | Lascia un commento

rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) for major depression disease (MDD)

In our center ( we perform rTMS of the brain, which is a treatment for major depression.
This technique is able to modulate the electrical brain cortical function by a coil which provides repetitive electromagnetic induction on the skull. Low frequency stimulation (<= 1 Hz) reduces the neuronal excitability, whereas high-frequency stimulation (>= 5Hz) enhances it. The dorso-prefrontal-lateral cortex (DLPFC) of the brain regulates emotional control.
Based on a great number of neuroimaging studies and clinical data (especially for patients with post-stroke depression), the valence hypothesis posits that the DLPFC of the right hemisphere is dominant for processing negative emotions whereas the DLPFC of the left hemisphere elaborates the positive emotions. In patients with major depression the left DLPFC activity is decreased while the right DLPFC function is increased. Thus, rTMS can modify the activity of the DLPFC in patients with major depression (by reducing right DLPFC activity or by increasing left DLPFC excitability).
Several studies indicated that rTMS can lead to long-term and sustained remission of treatment-resistant MDD (as showed by standard depression questionnaires), improving the quality of life and functional status of patients. rTMS is also known to improve the antidepressant effect of psychotherapy commonly prescribed drugs (such as paroxetine or escitalopram). rTMS could be also preformed in pregnant patients. Side effets are mild (generally mild discomfort at the stimulus site of the scalp). Different protocols of rTMS (on outpatient basis) are possible for depression over 2 or 4 weeks.
rTMS is contraindicated in patients with a history of seizures although the incidence rate is relatively low (<0.1%).
The psychiatrist of the patient with MDD should contact us ( ; 0041 22 9959744) to discuss about the rTMS treatment

Richieri R. et al. Predictive value of dorso-lateral prefrontal connectivity for rTMS response in treatment-resistant depression: A brain perfusion SPECT study.Brain Stimul. 2018 Sep – Oct;11(5):1093-1097.
Donse L. Simultaneous rTMS and psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: Clinical outcomes and predictors from a large naturalistic study.Brain Stimul. 2018 Mar – Apr;11(2):337-345.
Berlim MT et al. Response, remission and drop-out rates following high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled trials. Psychol Med. 2014 Jan;44(2):225-39.
Gaynes BN et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014 May;75(5):477-89.
Kaster TS et al. Efficacy, tolerability, and cognitive effects of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for late-life depression: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Jun 18.
Felipe RM et al.Transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of major depression during pregnancy: a review.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2016 Oct-Dec;38(4):190-197.

Pubblicato in Psychiatry, rTMS | Lascia un commento

Do not forget the visual evoked potentials (PEV)

A flash of light, which is projected on the retina, produces an electrical response on the visual cortex of the occipital lobe, a phenomenon known since a century. A chessboard that reverses its white and black pattern also produces a cortical response that is measurable (visual evoked potentials or PEV). The PEV are performed with the patient sitting 70-100 cm in front of a screen with a visual angle of 30 seconds of arc; the chessboard changes the color pattern at a frequency of 1-2 Hz (every 500 milliseconds) and 200 responses are recorded for each eye by electrodes applied to the occipital region of the scalp. The examination consists of stimulating one eye at a time (after measuring the visual acuity) and can show if there is a delay of the nerve conduction (from the retina up to the occipital lobe, through the optic nerve , the optic chiasma, the lateral geniculate body and the optical radiations up to the area 17 of the visual cortex). This examination is particularly useful for identifying a pathology of the optic nerve even when the visual function is good, and there is no evidence of abnormalities of the ocular fundus or the visual fields. The examination is therefore needed for detecting demyelinating lesions in case of multiple sclerosis when the diagnosis is uncertain. In this case there is a delay of the P100 wave. The PEV would be useful for investigating all the optic neuritis (toxic causes, ischemic neuropathy, hereditary Leber neuropathy) and also for glaucoma in search of a concomitant impairment of the optic nerve. The normality of the PEV suggests, in the case of blindness, a psychogenic origin.
Although MRI examination can easily demonstrate the existence of lesions on the visual pathways, the PEVs are still a very useful test for measuring the optic nerve function and should be used to monitor the evolution of the optic neuritis. We perform the PEV in our neurology center ( The examen is refunded by the health insurance.

Pubblicato in Uncategorized | Lascia un commento

The mystery of moving toes without or with pain

This rare syndrome is still a mystery. Suddenly, the toes of one or both feet begin to move continuously. Different types of movements are described.
The movements are often irregular and consist of flexion / extension, adduction / abduction, spacing or circular toe movements with sustained contraction from time to time . The patient can interrupt only for a short period of time these movements with a voluntary movement of the foot and toes. The toes do not move during the sleep.
The moving toes are often preceded or accompanied by disabling pain (legs and feet). Hence, the name of the syndrome ” painful legs and moving toes ». This syndrome was first described in the 70’s’. In some cases the syndrome is related to pathologies of the peripheral nerves (polyneuropathy, herniated disc) or spine disease (attached spinal cord syndrome, myelitis). A few cases have been associated with Parkinson’s disease or neuroleptic treatment, chemotherapy, brain tumors, stroke, Wilson’s disease, trauma and thyroid disease.
Most of the time, any cause is detected. The idiopathic form (without apparent causes) affects usually women around the age of 50.
The origin of this syndrome is among the many mysteries of neurology. Is this the resurgence of ancient movements in phylogenesis (type fishes’ fins and gills)?
The evolution can be in the sense of spontaneous remission, stability or progression. Pharmacological treatments (antiepileptics) are partially effective. Treatment with Botox infiltrations can be considered.

Pubblicato in Neurologic mysteries, Pain syndromes, Peripheral Nervous System, Uncategorized | Lascia un commento

The locomotive syndrome

This syndrome was first described in 2007 by the Japanese Orthopedic Association in order to define a new concept causing gait disorders in a considerable number of very elderly patients. This is the locomotive that doesn’t pushes the train forward. The neurologist often meets these patients.
The locomotive syndrome is the consequence of pathologies on 3 levels: bone (osteoporosis), articulations and vertebral discs (spondylosis and spondyloarthritis at the cervical and lumbar level, shoulders, hips and knee arthritis), muscles and peripheral nerves. Finally the locomotive syndrome brings together several pathologies that are related to each other. The symptoms are pain, limitation of mobility, difficulties of balance and walking.
The consequence of this syndrome is a decrease of the functional autonomy for the activities of daily living, a decrease in social life and quality of life. There is a 25-item questionnaire (Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale – GLFS-25) that can help to establish the diagnosis. Other measures can be used to better define the functional state such as the handgrip strength, the on one leg time standing, and the 6 m walking time The syndrome is common for elderly patients. While the term « frailty syndrome » is intended in case several organs are typo-functioning (cognition dysfunction is included), the term locomotive syndrome applies to multiple inter related musculoskeletal problems.
Osteoporosis is an important component of the locomotive syndrome and its prevention is fundamental. Finally, to prevent the locomotive syndrome of the geriatric age, the most important thing to do is to let patients moving. Favor mobility by all means. Assessment and treatments are provided by a multidisciplinary team. Thus, do not forget the neurologist.

Pubblicato in Neurorehabilitation | Lascia un commento

Migraine and sleep

We know, as neurologists, that there is an association between migraine and poor sleep. Sleeping poorly (non-restorative sleep, insomnia) increases migraine attacks and worsens comorbidities (depression and anxiety).
It is known that the brain of the patients with migraine is more sensitive to environmental stimuli (only one example: the light) and that their visceral-vegetative system is more active. There is scientific evidence that migraine patients need more sleep than others. Poor sleep decreases the pain tolerance of migraine sufferers, but also of patients with tension headache.
On the other hand, improving sleep can turn a chronic migraine into an episodic one.
Sleeping pills may be helpful initially, but it is not a valid long-term solution for migraine.
Some tips for migraine sufferers to improve sleep:
⁃ Behavioral cognitive therapy targeted at sleep, especially in cases of depression or anxiety
⁃ No coffee after 1 pm
⁃ No alcohol at night
⁃ No exercising in the 5 hours before bedtime
⁃ Shower (not too hot) before bedtime
⁃ No fluids within 2 hours before bedtime
⁃ Interval of at least 4 hours between dinner and bedtime
⁃ No lights in the bedroom during the night
⁃ The alarm clock must not be visible (turn it)
⁃ Switch-off smartphones and tablets
⁃ No television in bed
⁃ The bed is only for sleeping (or for couple intimacy)
⁃ Listen, if necessary, to music that facilitates sleep (reiki, Marconi Union…), without words
⁃ Go to bed when you know you could fall asleep in 20 minutes
⁃ To sleep at least 8 hours every day included weekend (to avoid the migraine of the weekend)
⁃ Get up every day at the same time (to avoid the migraine of the weekend)
⁃ Do not nap during the day

Do you have other tips? Please share with us your experiences.

Pubblicato in Headache, Sleep, Uncategorized | Lascia un commento

Misidentification syndromes at the interface of neurology and psychiatry

As neurologists, sometimes we deal with special « delusions ».
Misidentification syndromes are rare neurologic conditions in which the patient attributes a wrong identity (a sort of hypo-identification) to people (Capgras syndrome or doubles’ illusion), to places (reduplicative amnesia), or believes that the physical appearance of a person changed into that of another (Fregoli syndrome), this last condition corresponds to a sort of hyper-identification. A parallelism can be traced between the Capgras syndrome and somatoparaphrenia (a right hemisphere syndrome). The patient with somatoparaphrenia believes that his or her paralyzed left arm belongs to another person.
The patient with the Capgras syndrome believes that his spouse has been replaced by another person or an alien. So, even if her physical aspect is the usual, inside there is an impostor.
Despite all plausible evidence, there is no way to persuade him that he is wrong. This situation well reminds the 1957 American science fiction horror movie « the invasion of the body snatchers », a cornerstone of extraterrestrial invasions in movies. The patient does not understand that no-one believes him on the false identities of people.
The patient with reduplicative amnesia believes that his house, despite a normal aspect, has been replaced by another location.
More types of misidentification can coexist in the same patient.
All these conditions are at the interface between neurology and psychiatry as they can manifest either with neurologic disease (stroke, subdural hematoma, Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy-body disease, drug intoxication, brain trauma, Parkinson’s disease, Fahr’ disease, levodopa-induced psychosis, epilepsy) or psychiatric disease without brain lesions (such as paranoia, schizophrenia, mania, and dissociative disorders).
Capgras syndrome and reduplicative amnesia manifest after frontal parietal, occipito-parietal, and thalamic lesions. The neural mechanisms underlying the dissociation between appearance and identity of the bodies remain speculative. However, it points to the existence of different cognitive and emotional networks for recognition (or memory) of faces and bodi, networks having different neural substrates or hemispheric dominance.
If you think that your spouse has been replaced by an alien or that your house is another place consult us as something could be wrong in specific regions of your brain.

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Lewy Body Disease, Parkinson Disease, Psychiatry | Lascia un commento

Fibromyalgia and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

We provide in our centre brain neruomodulation with rTMS in order to treat patients with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a very common chronic painful musculoskeletal condition affecting about 1-3% of the population world wide. Main clinical features are widespread muscular pain and tenderness, commonly associated with fatigue, sleep disturbances, memory and attention deficits and mood disorders (anxiety and depression). Diagnosis is made according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria (Wolfe et al. 2010 and 2016). A rheumatologist should provide the diagnosis.
The aetiology of the disorder is unknown and there is no a definite cure. Pharmacological interventions (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, AINS and opioid-like substances) have limited efficacy and often side effects. Psychotherapies and physiotherapy have partial success.
Several experimental studies on fibromyalgia suggested the key role of chemical, structural and physiological changes of the central nervous system for pain maintenance. An increased neuronal excitability is installed in brain areas processing physical, emotional and cognitive attributes of pain, probably mediated by glutamate activity on the NMDA receptors.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and non-invasive procedure that uses a magnetic field to modulate the activity of cortical brain areas and their networks and to reduce glutamate activity.
Contraindications for TMS are epilepsy or history of seizure, pacemakers and other implantable medical devices, serious head injury, pregnancy. rTMS treatment can be easily performed on outpatients.
Even if there are only weak recommendations provided by meta-analytic studies and further clinical research is needed, several studies demonstrated the effectiveness of rTMS excitatory modulation on the fronto-dorso-lateral cortex over several weeks. There is expected a minimum 30% of pain improvement and a similar significant chance of fatigue reduction and improvement in sleep and quality of life.


Fitzgibbon BM et al. Evidence for the improvement of fatigue in fibromyalgia: a 4-week left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive magnetic stimulation randomized-controlled trial. Eur J Pain 2018 (epub ahead of print).

Hou WH et al. The effects of add-on non-invasive brain stimulation in fibromyalgia : a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford)2016.55(8):1507-17.

Boyer L. et al. rTMS in fibromyalgia: a randomized trial evaluating QoL and its brain metabolic substrate. Neurology 2014.82(14):1231-8.

Lee SJ et al. The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on fibromyalgia: a randomized sham-controlled trial with 1-mo follow-up. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2012.91(12): 1077-85.

Pubblicato in neuromodulation, rTMS | Lascia un commento

Recherche de médecin spécialiste

Nous désirons developper ultérieurement notre centre de neurologie et nous cherchons (à temps plein ou à temps partiel) un médecin indépendant d’une autre spécialité (possiblement apparentée avec la neurologie ou un psychiatre ou un spécialiste de médecine interne) avec un droit de pratique dans le canton de Vaud. Situé dans un élégant immeuble à l’entrée de Gland notre spacieux cabinet met à disposition une salle de consultation. Le centre dispose de plusieurs salles de consultations, une salle d’examen, une cuisine agencée et une grande réception/salle d’attente. Le centre est accessible aux fauteuils roulants. Le cabinet est en proximité d’arrêt de bus (en face), il se trouve à la sortie de l’autoroute de Gland et dispose de 6 places de parkings. Pour d’autres informations visiter le site Vous pouvez nous contacter par e-mail : ou par téléphone pendant les heures de bureau 022 995. 97. 44.

Pubblicato in Uncategorized | Lascia un commento

The Balint syndrome (a chaotic visual world)

The Balint syndrome is a rare neurological condition consisting of a triad of visuomotor deficits : simultanagnosia, oculomotor apraxia and optic apraxia.
Simultanagnosia is the inability to perceive objects when they are simultaneously presented (seeing the tree but not the forest). Patients with simultanagnosia see the world in pieces (piecemeal vision) and not in its integrity.
Oculomotor apraxia consists of the difficulty to direct voluntarily the gaze to an object. Optic apraxia is the condition of not being able to grasp objects by hands with the visual guidance.
Finally, the patients with the Balint syndrome act as they were blind. Their vision is a patchwork, they cannot perceive more than an object at a time or understanding complex visual scenes. They cannot move the eyes where they want and they cannot grasp the objects that they see.
The syndrome (often not recognized) is the result of bilateral ischemic strokes involving the parieto-occipital regions, interrupting the connections between primary visual areas of the occipital lobe and secondary visual areas of the parietal lobe.
Rehabilitation of patients with the Balint syndrome is extremely difficult and would be based on attempts of sensory modalities crossed interaction (visual, tactile, auditory and kinesthetic) or on virtual reality applications.
We cannot ever imagine how such a visual world this would be (seeing without perceiving).
In our cabinet we can perform complex visual assessments to diagnose the Balint Syndrome or other supramodal visual disorders.

Pubblicato in Apraxia, Cerebrovascular diseases, Cognition and Behavior, Neurorehabilitation, Stroke, visual disorders | Lascia un commento

Occipital neuralgia

The occipital neuralgia (formerly called Arnold’s neuralgia) is a primary headache, which must be distinguished from the migraine.
The main symptom is an electric, burning and invalidating pain (generally different from the migraine), of which the origin is just below the occipital protuberance and which radiates anteriorly to the vertex of the skull. The patients describes the location of the pain at a superficial level on the scalp. The pain increases by combing the hairs or pressing the head on the pillow.
The great and\or the lesser occipital nerves are involved.
Clinically, the pain and tingling are reproduced by the palpation of nerves next to the occipital bone (Tinel’s sign).
Pain mechanisms are not completely understood. Nerves are probably compressed somewhere by the oblique and the trapeze muscles.
Indeed, the diagnosis seems confirmed by the disappearance of the pain by an anesthetic nerve block. In rare cases the nerve irritation is secondary to vascular malformations, infectious or inflammatory diseases (eg myelitis and multiple sclerosis), vasculitis and arteritis (such as Horton’s disease in the elderly)  or compression of the C2 root, which is at the origin of the occipital nerve, at the vertebral level. A herpetic infection of the C2 root may mimic occipital neuralgia (but in this case we must search for the herpetic vesicular lesions on the scalp). Sometimes neuralgia occurs after cervical spinal surgery.
In suspicion of infiltrative or structural lesions, it is advisable to perform a brain / cervical MRI exam.
Pharmacological treatments (NSAIDs, pregabalin, muscle relaxants) can be initiated. Nevertheless, as symptoms are often excruciating, we perform already at the beginning, the anesthetic block of the nerve by Lidocaine (without corticosteroids) or a local treatment of mesotherapy (Lidocaine+Amytriptyline).
The latest resources for chronic pain which is refractory to standard therapies are pulsed radiofrequency, implantation of an occipital nerve stimulator, and botulinum toxin infiltrations.

Pubblicato in Headache, Pain syndromes | Lascia un commento

Minor Hemisphere Major Syndromes

Dr Carota recently published an extensive article entitled “Minor hemisphere major syndromes” on a prestigious international journal of neurology. You can take a look to understand how the functional differences of the two brain hemispheres result in different syndromes in case of stroke or other neurological diseases.


A right “minor hemisphere” does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body. Another key function of the right hemisphere is the modulation of the emotional processes of the linguistic communication (as prosody and facial expressions), and the tuning of some holistic aspects of language as the understanding of the abstract and figurative characters. The great mysteries of the right brain hemisphere concern the origin of the emotional nature of the human being, the way by which cognition interacts with perception and finally the human consciousness. Multidisciplinary researches in the domains of neurology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychiatry, functional neuroimaging, and neurophysiology will reveal in the future some of these mysteries


Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior, Stroke | Lascia un commento

MINI-COG: to do absolutely

The MINI-COG (Borson and al. 2000) is an excellent screening test for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. I always suggest to general doctors or to relatives to perform the test to the person with memory difficulties.
The test requires only three minutes of time. It is a very easy and excellent screening test.
It is necessary to cite three words (BANANA-SUNRISE-CHAIR) and let him repeat, asking to memorize the words for the future.
Afterwords, it is necessary to give to the subject the instructions to draw ta clock. He has to write the numbers and put the hands at 11:10. These consignes can be repeated but no additional instruction must be given. There is no time limit.
Afterwords, we ask the subject to recall the three words (1 point for every correct word, the order is not important).
The clock is considered normal or abnormal; normal if all the numbers are present with good sequence and position with the hands indicating the desired hour.
The test is positive (indicating a probability of 90 % of dementia or Alzheimer disease) if the clock is abnormal and there is a score of 0, 1 or 2 for the remembered words. The test is negative with a score of 3 for the words, or 1 or 2 for words together with an abnormal clock.
The figure shows the clock of a patient with an Alzheimer’s disease at a late stage.
The sensibility of the MINI-COG is high. If the test is positive there is approximately 80-90 % of probability that the patient has dementia or Alzheimer’’s disease, while the false negatives are below 10).
If the test is positive you should not hesitate to contact us, because, in these cases, it is necessary to make a diagnosis as soon and as accurate as possible.

Pubblicato in Alzheimer, Cognition and Behavior, Memory | 1 commento

Mesotherapy onboarding

For the treatment of the acute and chronic painful syndromes, besides the usual oral drugs, especially in case of non response, it is often necessary to make recourse to other treatments. Among them, the mesotherapy has an important place. The mesotherapy is now part of the inter-university course of the French medical schools.

In our center we provide Mesotherapy mainly for headache and cervical pain.

The mesotherapy consists in very superficial and not painful local injections, through the skin, of the lowest quantities of the classic drugs.  The basic principle of the mesotherapy is to inject small quantities of drugs where the pain it is.
These injections can be intra epidermic, intradermal superficial or deep, generally, between 2 and 4 mm under the surface of the skin. We use very fine needles (Ø 0.4mm) and single-use material.

The injectable products are the ones of the general medicine, but in very small quantity and namely: myorelaxants, anti-edema, anti-inflammatory drugs vasodilators, multivitamins, etc. Once injected, the drug remains in the site of injection to be released locally and slowly. There are almost never side effects. Doses are very low and there are no unfavorable interactions with the the oral traitements. The intra-epidermic injections are feasible also in case of patients treated by oral anticoagulants, because there is any hemorrhagic risk. The mesotherapy turns out to be particularly interesting for the older individuals, in particular those who already received  many standard oral drugs and want and/or can try another route of administration. There is no risk of HIV or viral hepatitis. All the precautions of antisepsis are taken.

The mesotherapy can lead rather quickly to the disappearance of a pain or its cure but only when the diagnosis is correctly provided. We have to know exactly what we treat. If radiological investigations are necessary to obtain a diagnosis, they must be done before mesotherapy. In the case of pain due to discal hernia, mesotherapy can be done even before recurring to deep infiltrations with CT-guide.

Generally, we provide 2-3 treatments (with a delay of 8-10 days among them) and, in the chronic cases, if there is a positive effect, the treatment is repeated every 3-4 months.
The administration of corticoids is forbidden with mesotherapy. The mesotherapy is a medical act and should be done by doctors. You can find the list of the doctors exercising the mesotherapy  Switzerland on the site of the Swiss society of Mesotherapy (

The Dr A. CAROTA is a member of the Swiss society of mesotherapy and uses this treatment for headache and cervical pain, also for the migraine (preventive treatment), arthrosis pain or the neurogenic pain (neuralgias, focal neuropathies, radiculopathies) or post-traumatic pain of the spine and the limbs. The mesotherapy has also a place also for the treatment of the postherpetic neuralgia or its prevention.

Pubblicato in Pain syndromes, Uncategorized | 1 commento

Vitamine D and Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for bones and metabolism of calcium. However, its deficiency has been related to many disorders and to higher risks of mortality. Vitamine D regulates the activity of 2000 genes and its production is enhanced by the exposition to the sun.
Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency has been defined as a serum level of 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L or 52.5–72.5 nmol/L, respectively. Deficiency is common across all age groups, especially in case of limited exposure to the sun. The daily intake should be of 400-800IU/day and commonly prescribed regimen consists of 2000-3000IU/day (in order to achieve optimal serum levels even in obese patients). Vitamin D toxicity is very rare, with none seen at doses up to 20000 IU/day.
There is enough evidence for the protective role of vitamine D for patients with autoimmune diseases including MS. The vitamin D interacts with the major histocompatibility complex of the immune cells and contributes to the production of interleukins and immunoglobulins.
Actually, a higher level of sun exposure and vitamin D intake as well as higher serum levels of 25(OH)D, are known to associate with a lower risk of MS. Data from some clinical studies indicate that Vitamine D (alone or in conjunction with interferon) improves the clinical course of MS, such as lowering the risk of relapses and reducing MRI brain lesions. Although this data should be further confirmed in specifically designed randomized clinical study we already propose vit D supplementation as an add-on treatment to standard immunomodulatory drugs to patients with multiple sclerosis. As vitamine D supplements, we believe that, finally, there is nothing to lose for patients with MS.

Pubblicato in Multiple Sclerosis | Lascia un commento

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

Dans notre centre de Neurologie à Gland, nous avons maintenant la possibilité d’effectuer des traitements de stimulation magnétique transcrânienne répétitive (rTMS).

Nous sommes les seuls neurologues installés, de la Suisse romande à proposer ce traitement ambulatoire.

Il s’agit d’une méthode non invasive de stimulation magnétique directe du cortex cérébral (environ 2000-3000 stimulations par séance). En fonction de la fréquence de stimulation, il est possible d’obtenir un effet d’excitation ou d’inhibition sur le cerveau. Par exemple si l’on stimule la région motrice de la main de la région prérolandique, la main controlatérale à la stimulation bouge. L’efficacité thérapeutique de la rTMS est désormais reconnue par un grand nombre d’études scientifiques dans le cas de certaines maladies neurologiques et psychiatriques. Ces études ont permis de définir des protocoles paramétrés de rTMS (nombre de stimuli, intensité et fréquence de stimulation) et de définir les régions cérébrales cibles. Les régions de stimulation sont localisées sur le crâne sur la base d’algorithmes standard.

La rTMS n’a pratiquement pas ou presque pas d’effets secondaires. Le traitement est ambulatoire et il n’y a aucune sédation ou anesthésie qui est nécessaire.     Ce traitement est néanmoins contre-indiqué chez les personnes porteuses d’implants cochléaires, pace makers et défibrillateurs cardiaques, ainsi que les patients épileptiques.
Les effets positifs du traitement apparaissent en général après 2-3 semaines de traitement.

La rTMS est indiqué comme thérapie pour les douleurs neurogènes d’origine centrale, la migraine chronique et autres conditions douloureuses par exemple la fibromyalgie

L’héminegligence spatiale et l’aphasie après accident vasculaire pourraient aussi bénéficier de la rTMS dans la phase de récupération.
L’efficacité a été démontrée dans les cas de la dépression résistante et des hallucinations auditivo-verbales non-répondantes aux traitements pharmacologiques. La rTMS pourrait être considérée aussi pour les patients (avec une dépression endogène), qui refusent un traitement pharmacologique.
Parmi d’autres conditions pour lesquels le traitement de rTMS peut être considéré, il y a aussi les acouphènes et les troubles anxieux. Pour les pathologies psychiatriques l’indication doit être discutée obligatoirement avec le médecin psychiatre référent du patient. Pour la fibromyalgie l’indication doit être discutée avec le rhumatologue référent du patient.

Nous sommes naturellement à votre disposition pour discuter de chaque patient les indications et le protocole de la rTMS.

Vous pouvez nous joindre à notre cabinet au 0041 22 9959744

Dr Antonio Carota et Dr André Menétrey

Pour d’autres informations, il faut visiter


Pubblicato in Headache, Neurorehabilitation, Psychiatry, Uncategorized | Lascia un commento


The prosody is a communicative linguistic function, which results from the intonation, cadence, accent, and physical duration of the words. The prosody enhances the comprehension or the composed words, the basic emotions (rage, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust, pleasure), the subtle emotional aspects of the discourse (irony, sarcasm, deception, boredom, solace), and allows the differentiation of declarative, interrogative, and imperative phrases.

Thus, the expressive (affective) dysprosody is a suprasegmental deficit of language which should not be explained by a motor (dysarthria) or premotor (language apraxia) deficit, nor phonological or aphasic dysfunction (such as agrammatism and anomia). The patients with receptive dysprosody do not understand the emotional information of the phrases or the meaning of gesticulation.

Affective dysprosody could be an early predictor of post-stroke depression.Several studies on brain-damaged patients and normal subjects demonstrated the dominant role of the right hemisphere for prosody. In acute stroke settings, the assessment of dysprosody by bedside tests could help in localizing the lesion to the right hemisphere. Dysprosody, during epileptic seizures, has been linked to right hemisphere foci. The profile of anatomical correlation of prosodic syndromes (motor aprosodia for anterior and receptive dysprosody for posterior lesions) seems to parallel one of the aphasic syndromes of the left hemisphere.

Functional neuroimaging studies on normal subjects also provided a dichotomous scenario for linguistic functions such as the left hemisphere dominance for phonological and phonetic aspects versus the right hemisphere dominance for the emotional aspects.

Dysprosody might be amenable to behavioral treatments.

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | Lascia un commento

A case of apraxic agraphia?

Apraxic agraphia is a very rare condition. The examiner should think about it when the patient shows normal linguistic capabilities (conversation is normal or almost normal) together with severely impaired writing. Apraxic agraphia is a peripheral writing disorder. Patients with apraxic agraphia have reduced ability to make the motor movements needed to write letters and sequence writting strokes. However, they usually have unimpaired capabilities of oral spelling. In the case of apraxic agraphia, writing is hesitant, imprecise and the disorder should not be explained by motor, sensory, extrapyramidal or cerebellar deficits and executive dysfunction (perseverations).
In case of stroke apraxic agraphia has been reported with frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions. Apraxic agraphia can manifest also with frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal syndrome.
Recently, I examined a 60 years old left-handed man, who had brain multiple ischemic stroke due to an hypercoagulability “trousseau’s syndrome”. The brain MRI showed 2 large lesions respectively of the left superficial territory of the posterior cerebral artery (occipital-temporal basal regions) and of the right parietal supramarginal gyrus.  Motor and sensory examination was normal.
This patient had normal linguistic output (normal conversation), mild denomination deficit, signs of visual apperceptive agnosia, alexia (letter-by-letter reading), and some features of apraxic agraphia. Oral spelling was spared. The patient’s writing was extremely low and hesitant as he did not remember how to do it.
An example of the patient’s writing on dictation is reported in the figure.
In this case, it is difficult to establish clinical-anatomical correlations (the same dysfunction is at the origin of both agraphia and alexia?), without further assessment but patients with atypical dominance could help in dissociating mechanisms of neurocognitive syndromes. Could you suggest your personal protocol to assess agraphia?

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | Lascia un commento

Stimulate your cortex and eat less

BrainEating Eating disorders should raise up from dysfunction of neural processing in brain areas that are involved in emotional control, appetite regulation and body schema representations. In this context, eating disorders are located in the interface between the mind, body and the sense of self-agency.
It has been suggested that changes of the cognitive control exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the anterior ventral striatal pathway (a center predisposed to appetite regulation according to feelings of positive or negative reward) could trigger bulimic or anorexic behaviors.
One of the best evidence of such control cortical mechanisms on appetite regulation is the “Gourmand Syndrome” described by T. Landis and coll. Such a syndrome, which was identified in stroke patients with right hemisphere anterior lesions, consists of developing passion or manic thoughts for fine food and eating.
Even if the localizations and psychological mechanisms were globally known it would be still difficult to understand cortical changes in the brain in term of more specific circuits and neurotransmitters. To proceed to such a knowledge systematic studies with specific questionnaires or experimental cognitive eating paradigms (coupled with functional neuroimaging) should be conducted on patients with focal brain lesions or focal epilepsies.
Repetitive magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation therapies, based on the result of those researches, would be tempted on patients (without brain lesions) and with eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia or on patients with malnutrition or obesity

Pubblicato in Cognition and Behavior | 2 commenti